Women, Tools and Ergonomics

(Photo/video permission granted by Green Heron Tools for use with educational materials through FReSH)

Use the following format to cite this article:

Women, tools and ergonomics. (2017) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://articles.extension.org/pages/74543/women-tools-and-ergonomics.

 

According to the United States Department of Agriculture – Economic Research Service, the number of farms operated by women continues to grow. A snapshot of women-operated farms is typically small farms but often diversified. Some characteristics of principal women farm operators include older and more educated than their male counterparts but also rely more on off-farm work income. Women in agriculture have different challenges than their male counterparts but one area that is sometimes overlooked is tool selection.

The majority of tools were designed and manufactured for males. Therefore, they were designed for the height, strength and body type of a man. However, women have a difficult time using these tools because of their body and strength characteristics. Because women have 40-75% less upper-body and 5-30% less lower-body strength compared to men, tools for women need to be designed so they are able to utilize more of their lower-body strength.

Typically women are smaller in stature and have proportionally shorter legs and arms. For a woman to use a tool that is too long, it can require her to work harder, cause physical pain, and strain muscle because the tool is not the right size. Compare this to using a piece of equipment with an undersized tractor and the strain that it places on the tractor and places it at risk.  Another physical difference for women is that they have wider hips and more narrow shoulders. Women typically have more adipose (loose connective tissue) than men. The grip of a tool can be one of the biggest issues because women tend to have smaller grips. However, most tools were designed for men so the grips are too big for some women’s hands which may cause the tool to slip, strain muscles in the female’s hand, and place women at risk of an injury.

Women continually use tools that are not the optimal tool for them to complete tasks. These non-optimal tools can place women at risk for an injury. In the past, women did not have options when it came to choosing a tool but times are changing and the market for tools that are specifically designed for women is making an impact. Research by McCoy, Carruth, and Reed (McCoy, et al) recommended that engineering research should be utilized when designing machinery or equipment for women farmers. Yoder, Adams and Brensinger (Yoder et al) conducted online surveys and focus groups with women concerning tools and found that there was a consensus in the following feedback: tools were too long or heavy, mechanized equipment was difficult and heavy to control, unbalanced hand tools, and poorly located or sized handles or grips. Engineers affiliated with Penn State University and, later, the University of Nebraska worked with Green Heron Tools on the research and design of a line of tools for women.

Green Heron Tools was founded by two women with backgrounds in public health, nursing, research & education who were also small-scale farmers. Recognizing the links among tools and equipment and health and safety, they successfully applied for a USDA Small Business Innovation Research (SBIR) grant to research the tool-related needs of women farmers. The company has since received three additional SBIR grants, including its current grant, focused on the design of equipment to assist with the lifting and carrying of heavy materials such as feed bags, hay bales and full buckets.

The 2016 i-Three Corp project between the Ag Safety and Health Community of Practice and Wearable Technology Learning Network worked with Green Heron Tools to look specifically at manure forks for women. Green Heron Tools developed a handle that is used on most of their tools that has been tested for ease of use. For the manure fork testing, the team used the Green Heron Tool handle but used different manure fork heads to test the design of the head portion of the tool. In the past, testing was completed using complex heart and breathing monitors to measure changes as a person used the prototype tool. The i-Three Corp project used wearable technology with a heart rate monitor linked to a mobile device to complete this round of testing. This configuration was easier for the testers to use and it was assumed that an increased heart rate during tool usage indicated it was more difficult to use the tool. A graduate student at the University of Missouri, Division of Food Systems and Bioengineering Department of Agricultural Systems Management Program is also testing the manure fork with women farmers and ranchers in Missouri.

The impact of this project was evidence-based tool development that is specifically designed and tested for women by women. Research data from this study will enable Green Heron Tools to complete the manure fork design and begin manufacturing.

Another project working with women, tools and ergonomics is the national Beginning Farmer and Rancher Development Program: 21st Century Management: Enhancing Educational Programming for Beginning Farm and Ranch Women. The Farm Safety, Mechanization, and Ergonomics team led by Karen Funkenbusch is made up of women from agriculture safety and health professionals, extension specialists, rural health care providers, and farmers and ranchers. Her team is collaboratively working with eXtension’s Farm & Ranch eXtenision in Safety and Health (FReSH) to collect practical resources for improving farm safety, mechanization, and ergonomic for educators and beginning women farmer’s and rancher’s and storing them in one central location on the eXtension FReSH website at www.extension.org/agsafety.

Resources

Ergonomics and Farming – California AgrAbility

Secondary Injury Prevention: Ergonomics on the Farm – Ohio State University

Sources

About green heron tools. (n.d.) Green Heron Tools. Retrieved from http://www.greenherontools.com/about.php.

Hoppe, R., & Penni Korb. Characteristics of women farm operators and their farms. , EIB-111, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Economic Research Service, April 2013. Retrieved from https://www.ers.usda.gov/publications/pub-details/?pubid=43750.

Reed, D, McCoy, C.A., & Carruth, A.K. (2001) Women in agriculture: Risks for occupational injury. Retrieved from http://nasdonline.org/static_content/documents/1815/d001759.pdf.

Yoder, A.M., Adams, A.M., & Brensinger, E.A. (n.d.) Designing tools and agricultural equipment for women. University of Nebraska Medical Center. Retrieved from http://www.agrisk.umn.edu/conference/uploads/AYoder1540_01.pdf.

 

Summarized and Reviewed by:
Ann Adams, Green Heron Tools
Liz Brensinger, Green Heron Tools
Linda Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Karen Funkenbusch, University of Missouri – FunkenbuschK@missouri.edu
Aaron Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

Shovels: Background, Challenges and Recommendations

(Photo/video permission granted by Green Heron Tools for use with educational materials through FReSH)

Use the following format to cite this article:

Shovels: Background, challenges, and recommendations. (2017) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://articles.extension.org/pages/74544/shovels:-background-challenges….

A shovel is a tool used for digging and moving material (e.g., dirt, grain, etc.) from one place to another. Shoveling is a strenuous task that can place added stress on a person’s whole body but especially the spine.  When using a shovel, a person is lifting and twisting their body which can place a person at risk for disc compressions and strain injuries. According to the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission, over 28,000 people received hospital treatment in 2009 for injuries (e.g., strains to back, shoulder, etc.) due to their use of unpowered garden tools (e.g., shovel, rake, etc.).

The standard shovel was not ergonomically designed but has evolved over the last century. Many shovels in use today by consumers were not chosen by them but given to them, inherited or that was the one available in the shed. However, shovels are not ‘one-size-fits-all’ tool especially for a female user. The following five things should be consider by a person when selecting a shovel:

  1. Weight – Obviously the higher the weight of the shovel and the load, the more strain it will place on a person’s body. However, a person needs to match the weight of the shovel with the type of job that they are doing. For example, the same shovel may not be appropriate to shovel snow in the winter and sand in the summer. The material that the shaft is made of can also impact the weight of the shovel.
  2. Type of Handle – Some shovels have long straight shafts while others have shorter shafts with D-shaped grips or handles. D-grips offer the benefit of allowing the user to keep her/his wrist in a neutral — unbent, untwisted — position. D-grips may also provide additional comfort and control, and oversized D-grips on some tools allow for two-handed digging.
  3. Length – A person needs to consider the length of the handle when choosing a shovel. If the tool is too long for the person then it may be harder for them to use and place them at risk for an injury.
  4. Blade size and shape – The shape and size of the shovel blade depends on the material that you are going to be moving. A larger blade is typically used with less dense material.
  5. Angle – An angled shaft can reduce the strain on a person’s spine.

The following tips are designed to reduce strain on a person’s body when using a shovel:

  • Choose the right tool for your body size and strength
  • Examine the tool to look for any signs of defect or damage. If damaged, do not use it.
  • Do some stretches prior to starting the job to loosen your muscles and increase your blood flow to your muscles.
  • Wear gloves to protect your hands and improve grip and wear sturdy, closed-toed footwear with good arch support.
  • Before your first scoop, decide how and where you will move the material.  
  • Examine your footing to make sure you have a solid place to put your feet and examine the area for obstacles (e.g., pipes, holes, etc.). Stand with your feet apart at a distance that is comfortable for you.  
  • Shoveling is not a race so pace yourself to do the job well without putting additional strain on your back. Take breaks!
  • Keep your back straight and bend your knees slightly so that you can use your leg strength to move the load and have your elbows close to your body. When you lift, straighten your knees so you are lifting with your leg strength instead of your back.
  • If digging with the shovel, use the ball of your foot to put leverage on the shovel blade and use your leg muscles to push down on the blade.
  • Material should not be thrown over three feet and it is a better practice to walk closer to where you need to dump it rather than throwing it. When you are throwing material, turn your feet in the direction of where you are throwing it. Never throw a shovel load over your shoulder.
  • In general, the maximum weight to shovel at a high rate (15 scoops per minute) shovels is approximately 10 – 15 pounds which includes the weight of the shovel and the load.  If a person is shoveling at a slower rate, the shovel and load combination weight could be up to 24 pounds. However, it is better to complete multiple load lifts at a lighter weight than to lift heavier loads less often.

Resources

Resources for Women Farmers and Gardeners by Green Heron Tools – http://www.greenherontools.com/resources.php

Sources

Hansson, P.A. & Oberg, K.E.T. (1996) Journal of Agriucltural Safety and Health 2(3): 127-142. Retrieved from http://nasdonline.org/2429/d001943/analysis-of-biomechanical-load-when-shoveling.html.

OSH answer fact sheets: Shoveling. (2011) Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved from https://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/ergonomics/shovel.html.

Safety note #157: Safe use of rakes and shovels (2010) University of California Agriculture and National Resources. Retrieved from http://safety.ucanr.edu/files/57413.pdf.

Shoveling 101: usage & techniques. (n.d.) Green Heron Tools. Retrieved from http://www.greenherontools.com/using-tools_shoveling-101.php

 

Summarized and Reviewed by:
Ann Adams, Green Heron Tools
Liz Brensinger, Green Heron Tools
Linda Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Karen Funkenbusch, University of Missouri – FunkenbuschK@missouri.edu
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

Funding Resources for Assistive Technology for Farmers and Ranchers

Aftermarket Steps on Tractor

Aftermarket Steps on Tractor

Aftermarket steps can improve tractor accessibility.

(Source: AgrAbility for Pennsylvanians)

 
Use the following format to cite this article:
Funding resources for assistive technology for farmers and ranchers. (2015) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://articles.extension.org/pages/72916/funding-resources-for-assistiv….

 

Individuals can have difficulty locating and qualifying for funding for assistive technology. Farmers and ranchers with disabilities who seek assistive technology can face even more challenges because of their work statuses, their farm or ranch assets, and the types of accommodations they may need to continue working in production agriculture. Assistive technology for those involved in production agriculture may need to be more durable than that needed for people working in other occupations because of the type of work and the work environment. The table that follows provides information about possible funding resources for farmers and ranchers with disabilities.

Funding Source Information Example Notes

National AgrAbility Project

State and Regional AgrAbility Projects (SRAPs)

Currently, more than 20 SRAPs provide direct services to farmers and ranchers with disabilities for their agricultural operations. SRAPs can provide farmers and ranchers who have disabilities with information about modifications for their farm operations. SRAP staff members are knowledgeable about funding options for assistive technology and other opportunities within their state. If you are from a state that does not have a SRAP, contact the National AgrAbility Project.
State vocational rehabilitation agencies The Rehabilitation Services Administration (RSA) of the US Department of Education provides funding to states to help individuals with disabilities obtain or retain employment. These federal dollars go to the vocational rehabilitation agency within a state. Services, including assistive technology, restoration services, and training, are provided to eligible individuals through an approved Individualized Plan for Employment (IPE). Examples of available assistive technology include gators/utility vehicles, steps onto a tractor, air suspension seats for a tractor, automatic hitching systems, and hand controls on skid steers. The Workforce Innovation and Opportunity Act puts an emphasis on transition for students with disabilities. There is also emphasis on serving individuals with the most significant disabilities.
US Department of Veteran Affairs Both the Veterans Health Administration and the Veterans Benefits Administration provide assistive technology to veterans. All veterans who have an honorable discharge are eligible for some services, whether the disability is service-related or not. The Veterans Health Administration can provide durable medical equipment, glasses, hearing aids, Home Improvements and Structural Alterations (HISA) benefits, and grants for veterans who are blind. The Veterans Benefits Administration can provide vehicles (including tractors), home adaptations, and Specially Adapted Housing grants. A veteran must be registered at his or her local Veterans Affairs Medical Center.
Home and Community-Based Services Waivers programs The US Department of Health and Human Services provides funding to states to provide services to people with disabilities in the community. These services are designed to help individuals be independent, safe, and included in the community. Available devices and services include adaptations to vehicles, home modifications, hearing aids, and other assistive technology (environmental controls, specialized computers and software). There are both financial and functional eligibility requirements. Waivers can be used to support farm family members who want to participate in farming activities, live at home, or participate in community activities.

Health insurance

Medicare

Health insurance plans, including private plans, Medicaid, and Medicare, provide Durable Medical Equipment (DME) for enrollees. DME includes canes, walkers, wheelchairs, hospital beds, oxygen equipment, and in-home dialysis equipment. Assistive technology provided by health insurance coverage is directly related to medical need. 
Statewide Assistive Technology Programs Every state and territory has a program that incorporate activities for learning about and acquiring assistive technology.  Most state assistive technology programs provide information about devices, assistive technology demonstrations, equipment lending libraries, and reuse programs. Some have state financing programs. Some of the states include alternative financing programs (AFPs) as part of their assistive technology programs; some provide other allowable programs, including Telecommunication Device Distribution Programs (TDDP).
Alternative Financing Programs (AFPs) The majority of the states and territories (at least 42) have financing programs for the purchase of assistive technology. As part of the Assistive Technology Act, AFPs provide flexible financing terms for people with disabilities and their families. Depending on the state’s program, borrowers have the ability to purchase adapted vehicles, home modifications, hearing aids, computers, tablets, and adapted farm equipment. AFPs provide direct loans, guaranteed loans, interest buy-downs, and traditional loans. Some of the programs are embedded within the state assistive technology project; others are non-profit organizations.
US Department of Agriculture (USDA) loan programs The USDA has several loan programs, along with partial grants, available to eligible low-income homeowners to repair, improve, or modernize their homes.  A variety of financing packages (including grants) are available to individuals, non-profits, consumer cooperatives, and others. These programs can make it possible for a farmer to make repairs on his or her home. Basic repairs (such as a roof repair) are not considered assistive technology and so do not qualify for an AFP loan.
Housing Financing Agencies Every state and territory has a housing financing agency. These agencies incorporate a number of programs that expand affordable, accessible housing options for people with disabilities. States have the ability to develop their own programs. Many states provide flexible financing for home ownership, renovation and repair programs, and programs that finance assistive technology (home modifications) for individuals who have disabilities or long-term health conditions. Many states have created Housing Trust Funds to support the expansion of housing programs. Several states have expanded the funding for these programs with fees or taxes from gas production.
Local service clubs and disability service clubs Many disability and service clubs provide grants to individuals for assistive technology or labor to build, renovate, or repair structures.  Local affiliates of United Cerebral Palsy provide grants for computers and specialized software; many organizations serving individuals with multiple sclerosis provide small grants for home modifications; many agencies serving individuals with ALS have equipment loan closets; Lions Club affiliates provide eyeglasses; and Eagle Scouts work on projects on farms. Also, many Grange and local Farm Bureau organizations and 4H programs have service learning projects and small grant programs. Because there are a variety of small grant programs, it is important to research local resources.
Options Counseling
The Administration for Community Living within the US Department of Health and Human Services is responsible for creating Options Counseling programs in every state. Options Counselors help individuals—primarily those who are aging or who have a disability or health-related diagnosis—develop a plan for addressing long-term services and supports and assist these individuals in connecting with public and private funding, as needed.
Options Counselors are being trained and will have the resources necessary (including state-specific information via the Internet) to help individuals learn about the resources they need to work, live in their own homes, and participate in their communities. Options Counselors are being trained on resources that will help farmers and ranchers with disabilities continue in production agriculture. 
Cooperative Extension System The Cooperative Extension System, which is funded in part by the National Institute of Food and Agriculture within the USDA, has a network of local and regional offices that are staffed by experts who provide information and training opportunities for farmers, ranchers, and farm families interested in topics related to agriculture. Through a network of statewide and local resources, Extension teams can provide farmers, gardeners, and producers with the information needed to start or expand a business, health and safety protocols, and connections to peers, vendors, and information related to emerging businesses. The Extension system is well-coordinated, and Extension staff members have the ability to research and share information that is useful to individual farmers and ranchers.
State Departments of Agriculture Every state and territory has a Department of Agriculture that is staffed by knowledgeable employees and funded with a combination of state and federal dollars.  There are a variety of grant-funded programs available for farmers or others who are interested in production agriculture. Programs cover such topics as business planning, transitions to organic farming, improving soil health, and protecting water quality. Funding for specific programs may not be available every year.  It is important to research what is available within a specific state.
National Center for Appropriate Technology (NCAT) A non-profit, NCAT hosts a number of programs that promote sustainable agriculture. NCAT’s agriculture work has recently focused on small-scale intensive farming, urban farming, and local foods, and assistance to small farmers, beginning and new farmers, and veterans wishing to become farmers. NCAT has staff members who can assist farmers and ranchers with information and training opportunities. NCAT developed and manages the National Sustainable Agriculture Information Service (ATTRA).
Kiva Zip Kiva provides 0% interest micro-loans to eligible small business owners in the United States. Kiva Zip provides small business loans of up to $10,000 to farmers when other sources of funds are not available. A few programs are working with foundations to expand lending opportunities to entrepreneurs. A program in Philadelphia is designed to expand urban gardening/production. Borrowers must have a viable business or business plan. The loan must be expected to have a positive social impact (for example, food production for urban areas).
Weatherization Assistance Programs The US Department of Energy (DOE) provides grants to states for weatherization assistance. Under DOE guidelines, states give preference to people over 60, families with one or more members having a disability, and low-income families with children. The local weatherization assistance agency carries out an energy audit, makes recommendations, and depending on the needs, provides the necessary work (energy-related). Weatherization assistance programs do not assist with new roofs or siding or similar structural improvements.  However, agencies may be able to coordinate with organizations that provide such assistance.
National Resources Conservation Service (NRCS) NRCS is part of the USDA. NRCS financial and technical projects relate to air quality, groundwater conservation, erosion reduction, and so on. NRCS offers programs to eligible landowners and agricultural producers to help sustainably manage natural resources.
Sustainable Agriculture Research & Education (SARE) SARE has grant opportunities available to producers, students, community organizations, and others. Grants for producers may help with the costs of hosting field days, samples and analyses, labor, and so on (see grant guidelines).

Grants are very competitive. For producers, grant funds cannot be used to buy equipment or to start or expand an operation. Funds can be used for outreach, materials for the funded project, and so on.

 

 

 

 
 
Use the following format to cite this article:

Funding resources for assistive technology for farmers and ranchers. (2015) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://articles.extension.org/pages/72916/funding-resources-for-assistiv….

 

Authored by:

Susan Tachau, PA Assistive Technology Foundation – stachau@patf.us
 
Reviewed by:
Kirk Ballin, Virginia AgrAbility
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Karen Funkenbusch, University of Missouri – FunkenbuschK@missouri.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – djm13@psu.edu
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu
 

Agricultural Safety and Health Mobile Apps

Chicken ROPS Run iOS & Android App

Mobile apps—computer applications that run on mobile devices such as smartphones—can be educational, fun, and easy-to-use, and they can help users improve agricultural safety and health. The number of safety and health mobile apps continues to grow in number and functionality. Below is a list of mobile apps that may be useful for agricultural safety and health:

Ag Safety & Health Apps

  • CSP Quiz Game Plus: These quiz games are designed to help industrial hygienists prepare for the Board of Certified Safety Professionals comprehensive exam.
  • Decibel 10th: This app turns an Apple mobile device into a sound meter.
  • FallClear LITE – Fall Arrest Clearance Calculators: This app provides fall arrest clearance calculators, tools for supervisors and workers trained in fall protection.
  • FarmPAD Mobile App: This app can be used to store farm records, equipment service logs, and spray records or to take notes and pictures.
  • Heat Safety Tool: The US Department of Labor, Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) released this app to enable workers and supervisors to calculate the heat index for their worksites and learn about protective measures to reduce the risk of heat-related illnesses.
  • Job Safety Analysis: This app was designed for business managers to increase efficiency through a Job Safety Analysis (JSA) or the Safe Work Method Statement.
  • Ladder Safety: The National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health released this app to improve extension-ladder safety.
  • Safety Data Sheets: Database for material safety data sheets; enter a product name to find related MSD. (Android devices)
  • NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards for iPad: This app provides a source for general information about industrial hygiene.
  • Sound Meter: Easy to use sound meter that measures SPL (sound pressure level) in decibels (db). (Android devices)
  • Winter Survival Kit: If you are stranded in severe winter weather, this app can help you find your location, call 911, notify emergency contacts, and calculate how long you can keep a vehicle’s engine running to stay warm.
  • WorkSafeBC Safety Videos: This app offers access via a mobile device to more than 150 WorkSafeBC workplace safety videos.

Ag Education Apps

 

National AgrAbility Project

National AgrAbility Project logo

 

AgrAbility is funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture (USDA) to provide direct services to farmers and ranchers with disabilities or long-term health conditions that impact their ability to work in production agriculture. National, state, and regional AgrAbility Projects are partnerships between land-grant institutions and nonprofit disability services organizations. AgrAbility’s objectives include:

  • developing service capacity by presenting educational programs designed to increase a producer’s capabilities, adapting new technologies, and delivering program content at educational activities venues;
  • encouraging networking to foster information sharing; and
  • providing direct services to agricultural workers.

AgrAbility’s Mission Statement

The vision of AgrAbility is to enable a high-quality lifestyle for farmers, ranchers, and other agricultural workers with disabilities, so that they, their families, and their communities continue to succeed in rural America. For this target audience, success may be defined by many parameters, including:

  • gainful employment in production agriculture or a related occupation;
  • access to appropriate assistive technology needed for work and daily living activities;
  • evidence-based information related to the treatment and rehabilitation of disabling conditions; and
  • targeted support for family caregivers of AgrAbility customers.

Click here to locate the AgrAbility Project in your area.

Assistive Technology for Agricultural Producers

Agricultural producers with disabilities or chronic health conditions who have difficulties completing their responsibilities on the farm or ranch may benefit from assistive technology (AT). Per the Assistive Technology Act of 1998, AT can be defined as any item, piece of equipment, or product system—whether modified, customized, or acquired commercially off the shelf—that is used to increase, maintain, or improve the functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities. The following list provides examples of assistive technology for agricultural producers:

  • Extra steps and handrails on a tractor help a producer with arthritis get in and out of the cab of a tractor.
  • An automatic hitching system enables a producer with mobility impairment to hitch and unhitch wagons while he or she remains in the tractor seat, reducing the strain on the knees and hips.
  • An automatic feed cart enables a person with a back impairment who can no longer use a wheelbarrow to feed a dairy herd.

Click here to be directed to the searchable online version of “The Toolbox,” a compilation of assistive technology solutions for producers with disabilities developed by the Breaking New Ground Resource Center.

Source

Assistive technology act. (1998) U.S. Government Printing Office. Retrieved from http://www.gpo.gov/fdsys/pkg/STATUTE-118/pdf/STATUTE-118-Pg1707.pdf.

 
 

Use the following format to cite this article:

National AgrAbility Project. (2012) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/63162/national-agrability-project.

 
Reviewed and Summarized by:
Kerri Ebert, Kansas State University – kebert@ksu.edu
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – (Has since retired)
Rob Stuthridge, Purdue University
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu