Preventing Tractor Overturn Incidents

 

Use the following format to cite this article:

Preventing tractor overturn incidents. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/68324/preventing-tractor-overturn-incidents.

Tractor overturn incidents can result in major injuries (crushing injuries, broken bones, and so on) and even death. The first step in preventing an injury or death is to make sure that your tractor is equipped with a rollover protective structure (ROPS) that, if used in conjunction with a seat belt, keeps the operator in a protective zone in the event of a rollover incident. Most rollover incidents can be prevented by understanding the causes of overturns and following safe operating practices.

There are two types of tractor rollover incidents: side and rear overturns.

Side Overturns

Ag Rescue Demo at APD

(Source: Pennsylvania State University, Ag Safety & Health)

Side overturns are the most common type of tractor overturn incident. In a side overturn incident, a tractor rolls onto its side. Preventing this type of incident is possible if the operator understands specific hazards and knows the appropriate time to apply safety precautions.

The two major factors at play in side overturn incidents are center of gravity and centrifugal force. The center of gravity (sometimes referred to as CG) is the location where all of the tractor’s weight is equally balanced. This point can change due to attachments and weight from a load, as when material is carried in a front-end loader. The center of gravity must remain within the tractor’s stability baseline for the tractor to remain in an upright position. A tractor’s stability baseline is found by drawing lines between the tractor’s four tires where the tires touch the ground. Centrifugal force is the force that pushes out on a tractor as the tractor makes a turn. (Click here to link to an eXtension article on tractor stability.)

Ways of preventing a side rollover incident include, but are not limited to, the following:

  • Braking properly
  • Avoiding shear line hazards
  • Keeping buckets low during transport
  • Driving at appropriate speeds
  • Using caution on sloped areas

Braking Properly

Before driving at transport speeds, lock the brake pedals together to provide even brake pressure. If you do not lock the brake pedals together and use only one brake pedal, the tractor could swerve and potentially roll over. When traveling with a load down a steep hill, shift your tractor to a lower speed before you begin your descent so that the engine does the majority of the braking.

Avoiding Shear Line Hazards

The soil on a bank or the shoulder of a ditch can be weak due to patterns of freezing and thawing or prolonged wet weather. Weak soil can collapse under pressure. The point at which soil is vulnerable to collapse is called a shear line. A shear line hazard exists when large vehicles such as combines operate close to a bank, putting pressure on soil inside the shear line and putting the vehicle at risk should the soil collapse. To avoid this overturn risk, drive your tractor as far back from the edge of the ditch or bank as the ditch is deep (see below). Maintain more distance for tractors pulling wide tillage or planting equipment (should a collapse occur under such equipment, the equipment could pull over the tractor or combine). When operating your tractor near a ditch or bank, always keep your tractor behind the shear line.

Shear Line

(Image Source:Safety Management for Landscapers, Grounds-care Business, and Golf Courses, John Deere Publishing, 2001. Illustration reproduced by permission. All rights reserved)

Keeping Buckets Low during Transport

Always keep the bucket of a front-end loader as low as possible during transport. A loader’s center of gravity in relation to the stability baseline changes drastically when the bucket is too high, especially on sloped areas, placing the loader at risk for an overturn.

Driving at Appropriate Speeds

Drive at a speed that is appropriate for a the given road or environmental conditions because increased speed reduces the stability of the tractor. By going at a slower speed, you will have greater time to spot obstructions in the path of the tractor and maintain better traction with the road (see below). It is also important to decrease your speed when you are pulling rear-mounted equipment to maintain stability.

Tipping Hazard

(Source: Pennsylvania State University, Ag Safety & Health)

Using Caution on Sloped Areas

Do not drive your tractor across steep slopes because the risk of a tractor overturn increases as the angle of the slope increases. If a task must be completed on a steep slope, use a tractor that has a wide front end and rear tires that are spaced as far apart as possible. When possible, back the tractor up a steep slope rather than driving uphill. When going down a steep hill, never travel at a speed faster than the speed you used going up. Centrifugal force is a significant factor when turning on slopes. When you need to make a turn while traveling on a steep slope, reduce your speed and turn downhill rather than uphill.

Pay close attention to any bumps or depressions when driving on a sloped surface, and keep your speed low when traveling on a sloped area. If you are using a side-mounted attachment on your tractor, make sure that the piece of equipment is on the uphill side of the tractor.

Rear Overturns

Rear Tractor Overturn Demo

Rear Tractor Overturn Demo

(Source: Pennsylvania State University, Ag Safety & Health)

Rear overturns occur when the front end of a tractor flips backward, landing the top of the tractor on the ground. The incidents are dangerous because they happen very quickly. A tractor typically reaches the “point of no return” in less than a second, and the entire rear rollover incident can occur in one and a half seconds. This gives the operator little to no time to react to the situation.

A critical factor involved in rear rollover incidents is rear-axle torque. When the clutch is engaged on a two-wheel tractor, a twisting force (torque) to the rear axle results. This force is transferred to the tractor tires. Normally the rear axle and tires rotate and the tractor moves. However, if the rear axle is unable to move in response to the torque, the tractor chassis rotates about the axle. This energy transfer between the engine and the rear axle can result in the front-end of the tractor lifting off the ground until the tractor’s center of gravity passes the rear stability line. Once the center of gravity passes this point, the tractor continues rearward until it comes in contact with the ground.

Tractors with four-wheel drive are less susceptible to rear overturns because torque is applied to both the front and rear axles, and the center of gravity is moved forward because more weight is carried on the front axle. However, there is little difference between a two- and four-wheel drive tractor once the front end of the tractor begins to lift.

Operators face an increased risk of rear overturn in the following situations:

  • Freeing a stuck tractor
  • Raising rear-mounted equipment
  • Using a front-end loader
  • Hitching above the drawbar
  • Operating on an incline

Note that this list is not comprehensive.

Freeing a Stuck Tractor

On occasion, tractors become stuck in mud or in frozen ground. When this happens, first try to free the tractor by backing out. To aid in this process, you may need to dig dirt or mud from behind the rear wheels and unhitch equipment. If you are unable to back out, enlist the help of another tractor to pull the stuck tractor out from behind. If this is not possible, use the other tractor to pull the stuck tractor out from the front. When trying to free a stuck tractor, never place boards or blocks in front of the rear wheels because the wheels could suddenly catch and stop turning, possibly causing the tractor to rear up and tip backwards. 

Raising Rear-Mounted Equipment

Add front-end weight to counteract the weight from raising heavy rear-mounted equipment.

Using a Front-End Loader

If you are installing a front-end loader, always use a loader designed specifically for your tractor. When moving materials in a front-end loader, the tractor becomes heavy toward the front, placing it at risk for an overturn incident. Due to the added weight from the loader and materials, you may need to add rear counterweights to the tractor or liquid ballast in the rear tires. Rear overturn incidents can be reduced by keeping the loader bucket as low as possible when transporting materials, especially when operating on a sloped area.

Hitching above the Drawbar

The risk of a rear overturn incident increases when you hitch above the tractor drawbar, which is specifically designed and located to pull loads. When you hitch to a location other than the drawbar (see below), you raise the angle at which the load pulls down and back, reducing the safety design of the tractor and increasing your risk of an overturn.

Drawbar hitching

(Image Source:Safety Management for Landscapers, Grounds-care Business, and Golf Courses, John Deere Publishing, 2001. Illustration reproduced by permission. All rights reserved)

Operating on an Incline

When pulling something up a hill with a tractor, both the slope and the pull on the drawbar make the tractor less stable. During operation, it is important to smoothly operate the clutch and throttle. Avoid stopping or shifting gears while on the hill because extra power is needed to restart the tractor and the tractor could drift backwards.

Resources

Click HERE to be directed to the Canadian Agricultural Safety Association website, where you can review actual tractor incidents and identify causes and safe operating procedures.

For more information about safe tractor operation and hazards, click on a title below to be directed to the article:

Power Take-Off Safety

Preventing Tractor Runover Incidents

Rollover Protective Structures

Use the following format to cite this article:

Preventing tractor overturn incidents. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/68324/preventing-tractor-overturn-incidents.

Sources

Agricultural tractor safety. (2011) Safe Workplace Promotion Services Ontario. No longer available online.

Baker, D. (2002) Safe tractor operation. University of Missouri Extension. Retrieved from http://extension.missouri.edu/p/g1960.

Murphy, D. (2014) Tractor stability and instability. Penn State College of Agricultural Sciences. Cooperative Extension. Retrieved from https://extension.psu.edu/tractor-stability-and-instability.

Smith, D. (2010) Safe tractor operation: Rollover prevention. Texas A & M System AgriLIFE Extension. Retrieved from http://agsafety.tamu.edu/files/2011/06/SAFE-TRACTOR-OPERATION-ROLLOVER1.pdf.

Tractors: Roll-over prevention. (2002) Canadian Centre for Occupational Health and Safety. Retrieved from http://www.ccohs.ca/oshanswers/safety_haz/tractors/rollover.html.

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Tom Karsky, University of Idaho (Has since retired)
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University (Has since retired)
Robert A. Schultheis, University of Missouri schultheisr@missouri.edu
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

NSTMOP: Program Overview

 

HOSTA Logo

(Source: Pennsylvania State University – Ag Safety & Health Program)

The National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program (NSTMOP) was developed through a collaborative effort involving Penn State University, Ohio State University, and the agricultural division of the National Safety Council. The project was funded by the U.S. Department of Agriculture, National Institute of Food and Agriculture. This program is now managed solely by Penn State.

The NSTMOP was originally developed and designed for 14- and 15-year-olds seeking employment in production agriculture. The U.S. Department of Labor’s Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (AgHOs) regulation prohibits 14- and 15-year-olds from operating farm tractors and attached powered equipment unless the youths have successfully completed an approved safe tractor and machinery operation training program. For more information about these regulations, click HERE to visit the website of the U.S. Department of Labor.

Curriculum

In its third edition, this student manual provides in-depth information on what youth can expect when working on a farm, safety basics, agricultural hazards, how to operate a tractor, and how to handle materials, among other important topics. This latest edition features updated regulations, vibrant and detailed illustrations and photos, and an improved user-friendly layout, and includes:

  • An introduction to the NSTMOP
  • A program outline for the six modules
  • A driving test layout and evaluation form
  • A list of core competencies that each student should master
  • Instructional task sheets

While required for NSTMOP training courses, this manual is available to any adult or young person who wants to learn more about agricultural safety. To order the manual, visit Penn State Extension at https://extension.psu.edu/national-safe-tractor-and-machinery-operation-program-manual

 

Evaluation

Students must score a minimum of 70% on the written knowledge test and must successfully pass the skills and driving tests administered by the instructor.

Students

Instructors use NSTMOP task sheets for the 24 hours of intensive classroom instruction. After students complete the classroom training and pass the 50-question knowledge test with a minimum score of 70%, they are permitted to take the skills and driving tests. After successfully completing both the classroom and driving components, students receive a formal certificate that allows them to work for hire in agriculture as 14- and 15-year-olds. Click HERE for more information about the NSTMOP and what is expected of students to complete the program and earn a formal certificate.

Instructors

NSTMOP is administered nationally through the Cooperative Extension Service and agricultural education programs. To receive a listing of instructors from your state, send a request to nstmop@psu.edu. Click HERE for more information about becoming a NSTMOP instructor.

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – (has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

NSTMOP: FAQs

 

HOSTA Hazardous Occupational Safety Training Agriculture logo

These frequently asked questions (FAQs) come from National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program (NSTMOP) instructors.

1. Can I teach this program to youth (14 and 15 year olds) if I am not an Extension Educator or Ag Instructor?

Yes, however an Extension Educator or an Agriculture Instructor should be present during testing and sign off on the training as the Certifying Authority for the USDOL Certificate of Training. The USDOL Certificate of Training requires a signature for the person conducting the training and a signature for the Certifying Authority. Extension Educators and Vocational Agricultural Instructors are considered the only individuals who can serve in the capacity as the Certifying Authority. If providing the training, you will need to sign the USDOL Certificate of Training and have an Extension Educator or Agriculture Instructor serve as the Certifying Authority. As a Certifying Authority, Extension Educators and Vocational Agricultural Instructors should review and verify instructional content/delivery, testing procedures as well as students’ performance.

2. How old does a person need to be to become an NSTMOP Instructor?

There are two answers to this question.

  •  If an instructor is teaching the NSTMOP course to a 14 and 15-year-old, this should be done under the Certifying Authority of either extension educators or vocational agricultural instructors. Extension educators or vocational agricultural instructors are referred to as NSTMOP Program Leaders or Community Lead Instructors. The USDOL certificate requires that an Ag Instructor or an Extension Educator must sign the certificate as the Certifying Authority.
  • If someone wants to become an NSTMOP instructor to teach a 16-year-old and up, there are no regulations on age. Instructors should be experienced and competent enough to teach tractor safety to others. To be an effective instructor for either group, you should be familiar with agricultural production practices, be knowledgeable about tractors and machinery, and have a general awareness of agricultural hazards.

3. I do not know how to drive a tractor. Can I still become a NSTMOP Instructor?

If you are uncertain of your tractor operation skills, plan to have an additional instructor who possesses this knowledge and experience to assist you. Many times, NSTMOP instructors will coordinate with volunteers to facilitate the tractor operations skills practicum during the course. If you decide to become an NSTMOP instructor, it is recommended to practice and familiarize yourself with skill activities and technical content either through professional development workshops or finding a local mentor through the NSTMOP program. We highly recommend that the instructor be an experienced driver with the ability to safely back the tractor in order to hitch properly to farm implements.

4. Do I have to use the 50 question exams that are provided?

It is not mandatory to use the written exam provided through NSTMOP instructor program. Each year an updated written exam and answer sheet are provided as a courtesy to current NSTMOP instructors. Instructors who wish to create their own written exam should consider questions that reliably assess students’ mastery of the course content. Considerations include the question type and answer prompts required. A well design test is an important component to ensure a valid evaluation of students’ knowledge. Instructor developed questions should be derived from the NSTMOP Core modules.

5. Once a student has received the certification, can they drive a tractor on a public road?

Each state’s legislative body has passed laws that govern motor vehicle use in their state. Since farmers sometimes use the highways to transport farm equipment and products, special rules are included in the state motor vehicle code to assure agricultural producers use the roads safely. In Pennsylvania, 14 and 15-year-old youths can operate farm tractors only on public roadways that bisect or adjoin their place of residence.

Please review Task Sheets 1.2.5 State Vehicle Codes and 4.14 Operating the Tractor on Public Roads for more information. Be sure you check with your State’s Codes to be compliant.

6. When can certified instructors download course materials?

Instructors can download course materials from the HOSTA NSTMOP Instructor Material group on our online course management system. Please contact png1@psu.edu for information.

7. What paperwork do I need to fill out at the end of a course?

  • For each student, you should fill out three copies of the Department of Labor Certificate of Training (appendix J in the instructor manual): One copy for your records, One copy for the student for his or her records, and One copy for the student to give to his or her employer.

8. How long do I need to keep my student records?

It is recommended that you keep documentation on the completion of training for three years or until the student reaches the age of 16.

9. I have been a HOSTA master trainer since 2003 and would like to hold a workshop to train community lead instructors. Are there updated materials since this time? Am I responsible for providing training materials?

  • Yes, materials have been updated. Both the student manual (2020) and Instructor (2017) manual.
  • Yes, instructors should provide training materials. Student task sheets and manual can be downloaded from the “Student Information” section.

10. Can I substitute a skid steer or another vehicle in place of the tractor for this certificate training program?

No. This certificate program is specifically designed for Tractors (of over 20 power-take-off (PTO) horsepower) only.

11. When is a support staff person available if I have questions or issues?

The NSTMOP office is open from 8:30 a.m. to 4:30 p.m. (EST) Monday through Thursday, except on holidays. There is not a support person available on weekends, holidays, or after 4:30 p.m. (EST). We encourage you to prepare for courses ahead of time if they will take place outside of regular business hours.
If you have questions, please contact the NSTMOP office at 814-865-7685 or via email at nstmop@psu.edu.

12. Do I have any special liability concerns to think about if I hold a tractor safety training for youth?

The liability associated with conducting the NSTMOP is no different from that of any other educational program or activity that Extension agents or agriculture teachers engage in. As long as you have some form of approval as an instructor, and you are following normal teaching protocol, then you have the normal liability protection that all Extension agents and agriculture teachers have when they are teaching approved courses or curricula. All state Extension services and high schools have 501(c)3 status as nonprofit
organizations. Specialists, agents and teachers are all employees and covered by their employer’s liability policy or policies. If a county, state, or school normally has youths sign additional liability waiver forms or collects a small fee for insurance, then the organization should also do so for this program. Note that all practice sessions with tractors and equipment and all tests should be held on property that has injury and liability protection.

13. Our school district does not own a tractor. What if we use a “borrowed” tractor for our classes, how does this impact our liability?

Your school district should contact their insurer to be sure you are following the policies that are contained within your contract. They should also be able to advise you if you would need any additional liability waiver forms. Most one day polices are for a small fee, which could be integrated into the course fee, if
charged.

14. A student younger than 14 years old wants to learn how to drive a tractor. Can I teach them during my NSTMOP course?

Students younger than 14 years old are not permitted to drive a tractor except on their home farm. Instructors should not let students younger than 14 years old drive a tractor at any time during the course. A 13-year-old can sit through the classroom only part of the training, but per regulation, they cannot do any tractor driving, skills testing, or practicing as part of the course until they are 14 years old. Note: It is recommended that the Written Exam, Operating Skills, and Driving Test be given within 60 days of each other.

15. Is a 16-year-old required to have this certificate to work on a farm?

According to the U. S. Department of Labor Fair Labor Standards Act of 1938 which was amended in 1968, individuals 16 years of age and older can be employed in agriculture without this certification. However, agricultural safety and health training is encouraged for farmworkers of any age.

16. A previous student received her certificate in New York and is moving to Kentucky. Can she use her certificate in Kentucky?

The curriculum is universal and applies to any state in the United States. However, it is recommended that you check with each state’s department of labor to see if their state labor work regulations for youth under the age of 18 are more restrictive than the federal regulations. The most restrictive regulations normally take precedence.

17. On more than one occasion, I have had young women from various religious sectors ask if they can participate in the NSTMOP training. My concern is for their safety due to wearing loose clothing. It is recommended in the Instructor manual that proper dress for test participation should be snug-fitting clothing and/or long pants. Inappropriate dress includes baggy pants, shorts, sandals,
jewelry, watches, and necklaces. Should I permit them to take the Operating and Driving Exam?

Safety is always our number one concern. The NSTMOP does not recommended wearing any type of loose clothing or accessories during the Operating skill test and the Driving test. The final decision, however, about what to allow always rests with the instructor. You may be able to find a reasonable accommodation by speaking with the student and parents. The official USDA certificate of completion cannot be issued if the student does not complete all three parts of the testing procedure.

18. How does the Independent Study option work?

The NSTMOP materials are designed to be used in a variety of instructional settings. They can be used in:

  • a traditional classroom setting (secondary level agricultural classroom setting),
  • an Extension/4-H program,
  • an independent study format, or
  • a combination of these.

There are 48 Task Sheets identified as core (C) that cover the MCCA topics and should be used to prepare students for the NSTMOP Written Test. Written test questions come from these Task Sheets. To meet current requirements of the US-DOL HOOA exemption, at least 24 hours should be devoted to these topics. Students who cannot access 4-H or secondary agriculture classes can use Task Sheets of the NSTMOP program and other educational resources (i.e. Deere & Company’s Farm and Ranch Safety Management book, other written texts, other instructional task sheets, student worksheets, tractor and machine operator and service manuals, demonstrations, vendor tractor and equipment safety videos, reputable Internet resources, AgSafety4U online course and guest speakers) along with the Skills and Driving test guidelines and forms, to prepare for testing through the nearest Community Lead Instructor (CLI). These other resources are not substitutes for the NSTMOP course. The student must still maintain contact with the CLI and complete and pass all required exams.

Success for the student selecting the independent study option is increased by:

  • The student working with a mentor (parent, teacher, neighbor, farmer, etc.), to answers questions that come up during the study of the Task Sheets.
  • The student maintaining contact with the CLI to communicate progress, requesting sample test questions to measure strengths and weaknesses encountered, and to be on track for meeting test dates and times.

The CLI must maintain contact with the student to assure focus and progress toward test date(s). Note: It is recommended that the Written Exam, Operating Skills and Driving Test, be given within 60 days of each other.

19. If a youth took the course at age 12, does he have to take the complete course again, now at age 14, to get certification? We realize he needs to complete the test requirements, but does he have to complete all the training again?

It is recommended that instructors should not allow students younger than 14 years old to start or drive a tractor during the NSTMOP instructional course. Students who are younger than 14 years old may participate in the classroom instruction portion of the training but should not participate in tractor operations such as skills testing or driving practice as part of the NSTMOP instructional course. It is also recommended that the Written Exam, Operating Skills, and Driving Test be given within 60 days of each other. It is recommended that students complete the driving test and hands-on practicum within 90 days after successfully completing the written test.

For students who have not completed the driving or hands-on practicum portion within 90 days of successfully completing the written test, it is advised that instructors review the core modules with students to ensure retention of the instructional content and/or have the student take and successfully pass another written test before completing the driving and hands-on skills test.

20. Is the NSTMOP certification required regardless of the type of business where the youth will be operating machinery, or does it apply to farming only? A mom contacted me and said her son may be working at a landscaping business and may involve tractor operation.

The NSTMOP Certificate Course is designed only to meet FLSA young worker exemption requirements for hazardous occupations in production agriculture (a.k.a farming). While the course is valuable for learning how to safely operate tractors and machinery, other industries such as landscaping are governed by
different regulatory standards. Please visit www.youthrules.gov and/or your state department of labor for more information on hazardous occupations protection standards specific to youth working in other industries.

21. What is the definition of ‘family’ as in – youth are not required to be certified if operating equipment on a ‘family farm’. Example – if it is a multi-family member owned farm and a cousin works on the farm, does the cousins 14 year old need to be certified?

Under the FLSA concerning hazardous occupations in agriculture, an exemption is provided for youth who are young than 16 years old and who are working for a farm that is owned or operated by a parent or a person standing in place of a parent. Please visit the FSLA website and/or your state department of labor concerning the definition of a person standing in place of a parent. https://webapps.dol.gov/elaws/whd/flsa/docs/person.asp

22. How do I handle students who have an Individual Education Plan (IEP) and want to participate in the NSTMOP?
There are several factors that impact the answer to this question, and instructors must always use professional judgment in responding to the needs of individual students.

The NSTMOP is not a mandatory program or course offering. This means that students are not required to take the NSTMOP, no institution is required to offer the course, and instructors are not required to modify an IEP so that a student can participate in the NSTMOP.

In addition, the NSTMOP is primarily for students who expect to be employed outside of school time on a farm, outside of school time, by someone other than a parent or legal guardian. If employment operating agricultural equipment is not a realistic expectation of the IEP student or his or her parents or guardians, the student need not complete the program.

Finally, note that your employer might require informed consent (IC) before the student can participate in the NSTMOP. The IC document must be signed by a parent or legal guardian and the student. The IC indicates, among other things, that the student is 14 years of age and “[does] not have any physical or
mental limitations for participation in this project.” The NSTMOP should not be offered to anyone for whom this statement would be inaccurate. In most cases, a phone call to the parent or legal guardian to explain the purpose and requirements of the NSTMOP resolves any issues.

IEP students who do not complete the program might nevertheless benefit from some level of participation in the NSTMOP. For instance, they may be able to participate in all learning activities, such as educational sessions and the written exam, aside from the skills and driving tests (including any practice sessions). Any student may have test questions read aloud to him or her and may have extra time to complete the written exam. If you allow an IEP student to participate in only the educational part of the NSTMOP, you do not need to obtain an IC, nor do you need a program evaluation form from the student.

Contact Information
National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program
The Pennsylvania State University
Agricultural and Biological Engineering
Ag Safety and Health
University Park, PA 16802
Phone: 814-865-7685
Email: nstmop@psu.edu

NSTMOP: Instructor Information

 

HOSTA Hazardous Occupational Safety Training Agriculture logo

The National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program (NSTMOP) is primarily a training program for 14- and 15-year-olds seeking employment in production agriculture. Completing the NSTMOP constitutes compliance with the training requirements of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (AGHOs) law. However, the curriculum of this program can also be used to teach new and inexperienced tractor operators of all ages and backgrounds how to safely operate farm tractors and other machinery. In addition, the curriculum provides an introduction to farm and ranch hazards and risks. When students that are 16 years of age and older complete the program, formal evaluation (the knowledge, driving, and skills tests) and the certificate of completion are not required. Instructors might nevertheless wish to take advantage of these components to add structure to their teaching.

Youth between the ages of 14 and 15 can be certified only by Cooperative Extension educators or by high school agriculture instructors (vocational agriculture teachers or agricultural science teachers). The signature of such an educator on the U.S. Department of Labor certificate indicates that a student has successfully passed all requirements of the training program. Only approved NSTMOP instructors can use the NSTMOP curriculum materials.

Instructor Requirements

To become an instructor, you must pass this course with a minimum score of 70%. Once certified, you will gain access to additional instruction materials, including the instructors’ manual, PowerPoints to help you teach safety materials, and more.

For those seeking to become a certified NSTMOP Instructor our new online course can be accessed at Instructor Training Course.

If you have questions about the program please email Peggy Newel at png1@psu.edu or call 814-865-7685.

Student Curriculum

In its third edition, this student manual provides in-depth information on what youth can expect when working on a farm, safety basics, agricultural hazards, how to operate a tractor, and how to handle materials, among other important topics. This latest edition features updated regulations, vibrant and detailed illustrations and photos, and an improved user-friendly layout, and includes:

  • An introduction to the NSTMOP
  • A program outline for the six modules
  • A driving test layout and evaluation form
  • A list of core competencies that each student should master
  • Instructional task sheets

While required for NSTMOP training courses, this manual is available to any adult or young person who wants to learn more about agricultural safety. To order the manual, visit Penn State Extension at https://extension.psu.edu/national-safe-tractor-and-machinery-operation-program-manual

 

After the instruction is complete, each student must complete a 50-question knowledge test and obtain a minimum passing score of 70%. Students who successfully pass the knowledge test are then permitted to take the skills and driving tests. Upon successful completion of all parts of the NSTMOP, students receive a formal certificate of completion.

Frequently Asked Questions

Click HERE for frequently asked questions concerning the NSTMOP program. Any additional questions can be emailed to the NSTMOP office at nstmop@psu.edu.

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – (Has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

NSTMOP: Student Information

 

HOSTA Hazardous Occupational Safety Training Agriculture logo

Youth ages 14 and 15 years old seeking employment in production agriculture must comply with the training requirements of the U.S. Department of Labor’s Hazardous Occupations Order in Agriculture (AgHOs) law. As part of meeting the training requirements, youth must complete an approved training program. The National Safe Tractor and Machinery Operation Program (NSTMOP) is a comprehensive program that consists of 24 hours of intensive instruction that incorporates the use of task sheets accompanied by skills and driving instruction. After completing classroom instruction, each student must complete a 50-question knowledge test and obtain a minimum passing score of 70%. Once a student successfully passes the knowledge test, he or she is then be permitted to take the program’s skills and driving tests. Upon successful completion of all parts of the NSTMOP, the student receives a formal certificate of completion from the NSTMOP.

To locate an NSTMOP instructor in your area, contact the NSTMOP office at nstmop@psu.edu.

Student Curriculum

In its third edition, this student manual provides in-depth information on what youth can expect when working on a farm, safety basics, agricultural hazards, how to operate a tractor, and how to handle materials, among other important topics. This latest edition features updated regulations, vibrant and detailed illustrations and photos, and an improved user-friendly layout, and includes:

  • An introduction to the NSTMOP
  • A program outline for the six modules
  • A driving test layout and evaluation form
  • A list of core competencies that each student should master
  • Instructional task sheets

While required for NSTMOP training courses, this manual is available to any adult or young person who wants to learn more about agricultural safety. To order the manual, visit Penn State Extension at https://extension.psu.edu/national-safe-tractor-and-machinery-operation-program-manual


Frequently Asked Questions

Click HERE to view a list of commonly asked questions concerning the NSTMOP program. Any additional questions can be emailed to the NSTMOP office at nstmop@psu.edu.

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – (has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

Preventing Tractor Runover Incidents


Use the following format to cite this article:

Preventing tractor runover incidents. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/67752/preventing-tractor-runover-incidents.

 

The main types of tractor incidents include rollovers, power-take off entanglements, and runovers. Runover incidents that occur can involve either the operator or a bystander. Tractor manufacturers have made changes (e.g., safety start system) to reduce the risk of certain types of runover incidents. However, all types of runover incidents can be prevented by understanding the hazard and following specific safety recommendations.

Runover of Extra Rider

A runover incident can occur when an extra person on the tractor falls off the tractor and is run over by the tractor or an attachment. There should never be an extra rider on a tractor. The only exception is that a few newer, larger tractor models with an enclosed rollover protective structure (ROPS) cab have a factory-installed extra seat for temporary instructional purposes only. Most tractors used on farms and ranches only have one seat and that is for the operator only. Runover incidents can occur to a person who rides on the tractor drawbar, axle housing, side links of the three-point hitch, rear-wheel fender, or other area around the operator’s seat. When standing or sitting on one of these areas, a person can lose his or her grip, be thrown from the tractor, and be run over by the tractor or an implement.

Prevention Step:

  • Never allow an extra rider on a tractor.

Runover of Operator

A tractor runover incident can occur to the operator if he or she falls from the moving tractor and is run over by the tractor tire or an attachment. This type of incident can occur if the operator does not buckle the seat belt on a tractor with a ROPS or if an older tractor does not have a ROPS. An operator can be knocked out of the tractor seat by a tree branch or another obstacle. The operator can also lose balance if the tractor hits a tree stump or encounters rough terrain. An operator can be run over if he or she tries to mount or dismount a moving tractor.

Prevention Steps:  

  • Never dismount or mount a tractor or machine while it is in motion.
  • Use tractors with a ROPS with seat belt, and fasten the seat belt every time you operate the tractor.  
  • Slow down when driving on rough terrain or where hidden obstacles may exist.
  • Before leaving the tractor seat, always shut off the tractor and set the brake or place the tractor in PARK.
  • Make sure that the tractor’s brakes and clutch are in properly working condition.
  • Replace old pan-type seats with seats that have back and arm rests.

Runover of Person Located on the Ground due to Bypass Starting

A person located on the ground near the tractor can be involved in a tractor runover incident. This type of runover can happen to the operator or a bystander if someone attempts to start the tractor from the ground (e.g., bypass starting) and the tractor is in gear.

Prevention Steps:

  • Always start the engine from the operator’s seat.
  • Add or leave the bypass shield on the starter terminals.
  • Keep the tractor’s electrical system in good working condition.
  • Do not disable or wire around the safety interlocks installed by the manufacturer.
  • Always visually check in all directions for people around the tractor before moving the tractor.
  • Reduce your speed when operating the tractor in an area where people are located.
  • Instruct everyone how to get the attention of a tractor operator before approaching the tractor.
  • Provide a safe play area for children to keep them away from farm or ranch work areas.
  • Make sure that all children at your farm or ranch are properly supervised at all times.

Runover of Person Located on the Ground near the Tractor

Bystanders and children are at risk of a tractor runover incident if the operator does not see them. This is especially a concern if they approach a moving vehicle while it is hauling a load in a bucket or using a bale spear attached to the front or rear of the tractor and are knocked down in its path. Bystanders do not always realize they cannot be seen by the operator. They can slip and fall under a wheel of the tractor or equipment.

Prevention Steps:

  • Always visually check in all directions for people around the tractor before moving the tractor.
  • Reduce your speed when operating your tractor in an area where people are located.
  • Instruct everyone how to get the attention of a tractor operator before approaching the tractor.
  • Bystanders should not approach a moving tractor until recognized and acknowledged by the operator.
  • Provide a safe play area for children to keep them away from farm or ranch work areas.
  • Make sure that all children at your farm or ranch are properly supervised at all times.
 

 

 

Use the following format to cite this article:

Preventing tractor runover incidents. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/67752/preventing-tractor-runover-incidents.

 

 

Sources:

Harshman, W., Yoder, A., Hilton, J., & Murphy, D. (2011) HOSTA task sheet 4.2: Tractor Hazards. Pennsylvania State University. National Safety Tractor and Machinery Operation Program. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/sites/default/files/NSTMOP%20Task%20Sheets%20Se….

Miller, J. & Fragar, L. (2006) Farm machinery injury: Injury involving tractor run-over. Retrieved from https://sydney.edu.au/medicine/aghealth/uploaded/Research%20Reports/farm….

Smith, D. (2004) Safe tractor operation: Runover prevention. Texas A & M System AgriLIFE Extension. Retrieve from http://agsafety.tamu.edu/files/2011/06/SAFE-TRACTOR-OPERATION-RUNOVER2.pdf.

 

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Dee Jepsen, Ohio State University jepsen.4@osu.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University (Has since retired)
Charles V. Schwab, Iowa State University cvschwab@iastate.edu
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

 

Riding Lawnmower Safety


Use the following format to cite this article:

Riding lawnmower safety. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/67563/riding-lawnmower-safety.

 

From 2008 to 2010, the U.S. Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) estimated that 35,000 consumer injuries related to riding mower incidents were treated annually in hospital emergency rooms (CPSC, 2012). Most fatalities involved a machine rolling over or running over someone or a person being thrown from or falling off the mower. The following list outlines common mower hazards:

Contact with Mower Blade – A mower is designed to cut grass with a cutting edge that can turn at speeds up to 200 miles per hour. At these speeds, the blade can damage anything or anyone in its path. Some injuries occur when the operator completes maintenance or cleans the discharge chute while the engine is still running. Avoid contact with a turning blade by always turning off the engine and allowing moving parts to completely stop before attempting any work on the mower.

Projectiles – Objects in the yard (e.g., toys, stones, etc.) can become projectiles when struck by the blade, causing the object to travel up to 200 miles per hour after leaving the discharge chute. These projectiles can cause property damage or serious injuries to people in the area. The discharge chute is equipped with a protective guard or deflector to stop objects from becoming projectiles. However, for the deflector to be effective, it must remain in place. The dangerous practice of bungee strapping the deflector up or removing it to increase grass flow from the mower chute defeats the purpose of reducing projectiles.

Mower Discharge Chute

(Source: Penn State Agricultural Safety and Health)

Overturns – Typically, an overturn incident can occur with a riding lawnmower when the operator is mowing on a steep slope or embankment. During this type of incident, the operator can be pinned under the mower or can come into contact with the mower’s blades.

Runover Incidents – This type of incident typically occurs when the operator does not look behind the mower when backing up on a riding lawnmower and accidentally runs over a child.

Burns – Burns can occur when an operator comes in contact with a muffler or cylinder that was heated during operation and has not cooled. In addition, careless refueling when an engine is hot can result in a fire that can cause serious burns.

Safe Practices for Mowing

Check the area for hazards each time before you mow. Look for objects that could become projectiles (e.g., dog bones, sticks, etc.) and immovable objects (e.g., pipes or partially buried rocks) that could cause damage to your mower deck or break apart and become a projectile.

Do not mow in an area where young children are playing because they may not understand the dangers of the mower and the operator may not be able to hear them approaching the machine.

Never point the mower discharge chute toward people, pets, homes, structures, streets, or vehicles.

Do not allow extra riders on a mower (even if you are not mowing).

Never leave a running mower unattended.

Always allow the mower to cool before refueling it to reduce the risk of a flash fire. Most mowers are fueled by gasoline, which is a highly explosive and flammable material. If you accidentally spill gasoline when refueling, quickly and carefully wipe up the fuel.

Start the mower outside or in a well-ventilated garage area to reduce the risk of carbon monoxide gas buildup.

Disconnect the spark plug wire to prevent the mower from accidentally starting before you complete any type of maintenance on the mower.

Avoid mowing wet grass because it is slippery and the machine’s tires can lose traction and slide. Mowing wet grass can also cause problems because of clogged grass in the discharge chute.

Know which way to mow when you are mowing on an incline. If you are mowing with a riding lawnmower, mow up and down the slope to reduce the risk of a rollover incident. When using a walk-behind mower, mow across the slope to reduce the risk of contact with the mower blade (e.g., sliding down the hill and getting your feet caught in the mower).

A slower speed is a safer speed.

Only mow when operating in a forward gear.

Personal Protective Equipment

► Choose the right clothing and protective equipment. Clothing that is close-fitting is less likely to get caught in moving parts than loose-fitting clothing. Long pants can provide some protection against projectiles not deflected by the rear guard.

Wear sturdy leather shoes with good traction to protect your feet.

► Always wear hearing protection (e.g., ear muffs or ear plugs) when mowing to reduce your risk of noise-induced hearing loss.

► To protect exposed skin, apply sunscreen (SPF 15 or greater) before mowing, then reapply it every two hours. Wear a wide-brimmed hat.

General Lawn Mower Safety Recommendations

Do not bypass, disconnect, or remove safety features or controls. Manufacturers continue to make safety improvements to mowers with special features or controls. These safety improvements are designed to reduce your risk of injury.

Always keep all shields in place.

When shopping for a new mower, look for the volunteer safety standard (ANSI/OPEI B71.1-2003) for walk-behind and ride-on mowers to ensure that you are purchasing a mower with currently recommended safety features.

Read, understand, and follow the manufacturer’s recommendations in the owner’s manual for maintenance, operation, and safe operating procedures.

Keep your mower in good working condition by completing routine maintenance, checking fluid levels, and sharpening the blades.

Empty grass catchers when partially full to reduce strain on your back.

 

 

 

Use the following format to cite this article:

Riding lawnmower safety. (2013). Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from http://www.extension.org/pages/67563/riding-lawnmower-safety.

 

Sources:

Kulkarni, S. (n.d.) Lawn mower safety. University of Arkansas Division of Agriculture. Cooperative Extension Service. Retrieved from http://www.uaex.edu/Other_Areas/publications/pdf/FSA-1005.pdf.

Riding lawnmowers. (2015) Consumer Product Safety Commission. Retrieved from https://www.cpsc.gov/PageFiles/122050/588.pdf.

Schwab, C., & Miller, L. (2008) Lawnmower safety: Practice lawnmower safety on farms. Iowa State University Extension and Outreach. Retrieved from https://store.extension.iastate.edu/ItemDetail.aspx?ProductID=5066.

Willcutt, H. (2014) Lawn mower safety. Mississippi State University Extension Service. Retrieved from http://extension.msstate.edu/sites/default/files/publications/publicatio….

 

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
Jimmy Maass, Virginia Farm Bureau (Has since retired)
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University (Has since retired)
J. Samuel Steel, Pennsylvania State University (Has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu

Machinery and Equipment Safety Publications

 

Agricultural Tractors and Equipment

Topic Titles Organization Pub Date
Big Tractor Safety University of Maine Extension 2002
Chipper-Shredders University of Missouri Extension 2010
Combine Fires University of Illinois 2015
Combines and Corn Picker Safety University of Maine Extension 2002
Dangers of Agricultural Machinery University of Maine Extension 2002
Driving Farm Machinery Safely University of Maine Extension 2002
Electrocution Hazards on the Farm Iowa State University Extension and Outreach 2004
Extra Riders on Farm Equipment Pennsylvania State University 2006
Extra Riders Mean Extra Dangers Iowa State University Extension and Outreach 2008
Farm Dump Truck and Trailer Safety Pennsylvania State University 2005
Farm Machinery and Equipment Safety Part 1: Recognizing and Understanding the Hazards Rutgers Cooperative Extension 2007
Farm Machinery and Equipment Safety Part 2: Preventing Machinery Accidents During Operation Rutgers Cooperative Extension 2007
Front-End Loader Safety University of Maine Extension 2002
Hazards of the PTO on Farm Tractors Alabama Cooperative Extension 2005
Machinery Safety on the Farm Virginia Cooperative Extension 2009
Machinery Safety on the Farm Kansas State University 2010
Operating Mowers Safely Rutgers Cooperative Extension 2005
Potato Harvester Safety University of Maine 2002
Power Take-Off Safety Pennsylvania State University 2014
Preventing Farm Vehicle Backover Incidents

Protecting Farmworkers from Tractor and Harvester Hazards

OSHA

OSHA

2015

2014

Recognize Limitations to Avoid Injury Iowa State University Extension and Outreach 2011
Rollover Protection for Farm Tractor Operators Pennsylvania State University 2014
Safe Implement Hitching: A Guide for Safe Connection of Agricultural Tractors to Implements Association of Equipment Manufacturers and Canadian Agricultural Safety Association 2011
Safe Operation of Compact Tractors Virginia Cooperative Extension 2009
Safe Tractor Operation University of Missouri 2002
Selection and Inspection of Hoses: An Integral Component of Everyday Equipment Purdue Extension 2010
Skid Steer Safety for Farm and Landscape Pennsylvania State University 2006
Skidder Safety and Efficiency: A Discussion Leader’s Guide Virginia Cooperative Extension 2009
Three-Point Rotary Lawn and Brush Mower Safety The Ohio State University 2015
Tractor Hitch Pin: A Critical Component in Keeping Control of Implements Purdue Extension 2012
Tractors in the Woods Pennsylvania State University 2011
Tractor Stability and Instability Pennsylvania State University 2014
Tractor Safety University of Maine 2002
Use Tractors with ROPS to Save Lives Iowa State University Extension and Outreach 2002
Wagon Safety University of Maine Extension 2002

Agricultural Vehicles, Visibility, and Public Roadways

Topic Titles Organization Pub Date
A New Look for Farm Safety: Reflective and Fluorescent Tape Iowa State University and Outreach 2000
Farm Dump Truck and Trailer Safety Pennsylvania State University 2013
Hold it Down! (Poster)

Hold it Down! (Pocket Guide)

Purdue University 2008
Lighting Self-Propelled Farm Equipment Alabama Cooperative Extension 2005
Make Sure Your Load Is Secure The Ohio State University 2011
Rx for SMV Highway Safety: Be Conspicuous Pennsylvania State University 2013
Securing the Load Purdue Extension 2009
Transporting Farm Equipment Purdue University 2011
Use SMV Emblems for Your Safety Iowa State University Extension and Outreach 2004

ATV

Topic Titles Organization Pub Date
All-Terrain Vehicle Safety National Children’s Center for Rural and Agricultural Health and Safety 2003
All-Terrain Vehicle Safety: ATV Safety for Farm Work, Recreation Iowa State University Extension and Outreach 2008
All-Terrain Vehicles University of Missouri Extension 2000
ATVs and Youth: Matching Children and Vehicles Pennsylvania State University 2013
Safe Use of ATVs in Agriculture Pennsylvania State University 2013

Chain Saws and Tree Felling

Topic Titles Organization Pub Date
Chain Saw Safety University of Maine Extension 2002
Chain Saws: Safety, Operation, Tree Felling Techniques Kansas State University 2011
Chainsaw Safety Tips University of Georgia Cooperative Extension 2010
Felling, Limbing, and Bucking Trees University of Missouri 2011
Operating a Chain Saw Safely University of Missouri 2011

Hand Signals

Topic Titles Organization Pub Date
Agricultural Hand Signals Pennsylvania State University 2008

Lawn Care

Topic Titles Organization Pub Date
Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Hand Tools Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Lawnmower Safety: Practice Lawnmower Safety on Farms Iowa State University Extension 2008
Power Tool Safety University of Maine Extension 2002
Powered Hand Tool Safety: Lawncare Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Powered Hand Tool Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Rotary Mowers Safety: Lawncare Training Guide Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Utility Type Vehicle (UTV) Safety: Lawncare Virginia Cooperative Extension 2012
Utility Type Vehicle (UTVs): Lawncare Training Guide Virginia Cooperative Extension 20012

Machinery and Equipment Safety Video Resources


Equipment Safety

Topic Titles Organization Resource Type

Agricultural Equipment Operator Safety (2002)

 

Iowa State University CD/Video available to purchase ($25)

Farm Augers: Manage the Safety Risks (2011)

4:18 minutes

Canadian Agricultural Safety Association Free – Online video via YouTube

Farm S.O.S. (Strategies on Safety) Video Series: ATV Safety (2014)

1:15 minutes

Ohio State University Free – Online video via YouTube

Farm S.O.S. (Strategies on Safety) Video Series: Slow Moving Vehicle (SMV) Emblem (2014)

1:09 minutes

 

Ohio State University Free – Online video via YouTube

For Your Safety: Industrial and Agricultural Mower Safety Practices (2005)

11:00 minutes

English     Spanish

Association of Equipment Manufacturers (AEM) Free – Online video via YouTube or click here to purchase a copy ($10).

Mechanical Hazards (2011)

10 video series on mechanical hazards (e.g., pinch point, crush point, etc.)

Pennsylvania State University Free – Online video via YouTube

Skid Loader Operation Walkthrough (2012)

6:04 minutes

Environmental Health and Safety Iowa State University Free – Online video via YouTube

Skid Steer Loader Safety (2013)

27:20 minutes

Kansas State University Free – Online video via YouTube

 

General Machinery and Equipment

Topic Titles Organization Resource Type

ATV and Farm Utility Vehicle Safety (2010)

25:57 minutes

Farm Employers Labor Service Available for purchase – $59/DVD

Ag Hand and Power Tool Safety (2000)

13:00 minutes

Farm Employers Labor Service Available for purchase – $135/DVD

Agricultural Safety Signals (2011)

English    Spanish

Pennsylvania State University – Videos that demonstrate the 11 ASABE hand signals when operating equipment Free – Online videos via YouTube

Adam Hall – Lawn Mower Fatality – Economics and Social Cost (2013)

7:42 minutes

U.S. Agricultural Safety and Health Centers Free – Online videos via YouTube

 

Rural Roadways

Topic Titles Organization Resource Type

Rural Driving/Defensive Driving (2000)

33:00 minutes

Farm Employers Labor Services Available for purchase – $75/DVD

Rural Road Crashes: They’re Preventable (2011)

10:00 minutes

Iowa’s Center for Agricultural Safety and Health Free – Online video

Sharing the Roadways in Amish Country (2011)

10:33 minutes

Ohio State University Free – Online video via YouTube

 

Tractor and PTO Safety

Topic Titles Organization Resource Type

Farm S.O.S. (Strategies on Safety) Curriculum Videos: PTO Safety (2014)

1:15 minutes

Ohio State University Free – Online video via YouTube

Farm Tractor Safety: More than Plows and PTOs (2010)

53:00 minutes

English    Spanish

Washington State Department of Labor & Industries Free – Online video via Windows Media Player

How to Install and Maintain a Shaft Cover on a Tractor PTO (2012)

8:17 minutes

Alabama Cooperative Extension Free – Online video via YouTube

Multi-State ROPS Rebate Program (2013)

4:54 minutes

U.S. Agricultural Safety and Health Centers Free – Online video via YouTube

Pre-Operation Maintenance Checks (2011)

9 video series coolant, tires, master shield, etc.

Pennsylvania State University Free – Online video via YouTube

Power Take-Off Safety (2011)

3:03 minutes

Canadian Agricultural Safety Association Free – Online video via YouTube

Proper Use of a PTO-Driven Posthole Digger (2012)

7:14 minutes

Alabama Cooperative Extension Free – Online video via YouTube

Rollover Protection Structures (2011)

2:16 minutes

Canadian Agricultural Safety Association Free – Online video via YouTube

Safe Operation of Farm Tractors: A Basic Overview for Farm Owners and Operators (2015)

(9 segments in the series)

University of Wisconsin Free – Online videos via YouTube

Tractor Operation for Hispanic Youth (2012) Video clips from 7 modules (e.g., vestimenta segura, senales conlas manos, etc.)

Complete Curriculum

Pennsylvania State University Free – Online videos via YouTube

Tractor Rollover Protection Plus Seatbelts Save Lives (2011)

3:45 minutes

Canadian Agricultural Safety Association Free – Online video via YouTube

Tractor Safety: Avoid Rollovers (2001)

00:31minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety: Falling Objects (2001)

00:31 minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety: Front Loaders (2001)

00:31 minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety: Lifting Heavy Loads (2001)

00:31 minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety: Proper Hitching (2001)

00:31 minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety: Safe Turns (2001)

00:31 minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety: Rollover Protective Structures (2001)

00:33 minutes

Mississippi State University Free – Online video

Tractor Safety Elements (2011)

11:37 minutes

English         Spanish

SAIF Corporation and Agri-Business Council of Oregon Free – Online video

Tractor Safety – 3-part series (2007)

(Part 1: Basic operation;  Part 2: Highway safety; Part 3: PTO and hitching)

Farm Employers Labor Services Available for purchase – $145/DVD

 

Gearing Up for Safety

 

Gearing Up Image

(Source: Purdue University)

Gearing Up for Safety is an outcomes-based instructional program developed to provide training for youth seeking employment in agricultural production. It was designed both for youth living on family farms and for 14- and 15-year-olds who want to be certified under the provisions of the Agricultural Hazardous Occupations Order (AgHOs) to perform certain work activities on a farm operation. AgHOs is a set of federal safety and health standards that classify certain tasks as hazardous for youth under the age of 16. By participating in Gearing Up for Safety, youth are able to meet the AgHOs training requirements for operating a tractor of more than 20 horsepower, connecting and disconnecting implements, and operating certain farm machines.

Gearing Up for Safety is intended for national use through the Cooperative Extension Service and agricultural education programs, both of which are specifically identified by AgHOs as authorized to conduct AgHOs certification training.

Curriculum

The Gearing Up for Safety program includes a Program Leaders’s Guide (CD-ROM) that provides instructors with tools for organizing and conducting an agricultural safety training program that meets the requirements of AgHOs and addresses the most frequent causes of injuries and fatalities to youth in agriculture. The program also includes a student CD-ROM consisting of 11 units that allows students to execute certain aspects of the training independently. The curriculum is also supported by an extensive website. (Click here to be directed to the Gearing Up for Safety website.)

The Program Leader’s Guide includes the following components:

  • Suggested teaching aids
  • Core competencies that each student should master
  • Graphics for presenting key points
  • Lesson outlines with supplemental background information
  • Activity worksheets
  • Review test questions
  • PowerPoint presentations
  • Examples of farm injuries for classroom discussion
  • Evaluation tools
    • These evaluation tools assess students’ knowledge of material, ability to perform preoperational safety inspections, and ability to safely maneuver a tractor through a standardized obstacle course.

Program materials are available online and for purchase as CD-ROMs:

Reviewed and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University – lmf8@psu.edu
William E. Field, Purdue University – field@purdue.edu
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – (Has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center – aaron.yoder@unmc.edu