Job Instruction Training

Use the following format to cite this article:

Job instruction training. (2014) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from


Safety training is important in all workplaces, and production agriculture is no different. Think about all the equipment, processes, and tasks that workers complete daily on farms and ranches across the country. Farm and ranch managers may make assumptions that workers know how to do certain jobs, but those assumptions can be wrong. As a farm or ranch manager, you are responsible for ensuring that each worker understands how to safely complete the jobs he or she must do.

Job instruction training (JIT) is a systematic, fast, and effective method for teaching your workers to do a job correctly and safely. This method of training workers through a simple breakdown of steps is easy to understand and complete. By providing such training for your workers, you could reduce the risk of an injury or death to a worker, prevent costly equipment repairs, or avoid lost work time.

JIT Planning

When planning to conduct JIT, you must choose an effective trainer, identify an appropriate location and time for the training, and determine what information to convey to the workers. A JIT trainer should be familiar with all aspects of the job and should be a safe worker. Also, a good trainer is patient and has the desire and ability to teach the necessary skills. To enhance learning, provide the training in a realistic setting, using real tools and equipment. If you are training multiple groups, ensure that the training is the same for all workers. Provide ample time in the training for the trainer to present the information and for workers to demonstrate the job and ask questions. When possible, plan to hold training sessions during a slow time of the year at your farm or ranch to allow appropriate time for instruction and interaction. Use JIT to convey to workers any new information, techniques, or processes.

Steps of the JIT Method

When conducting JIT, the trainer uses the following four steps:

  1. Preparation: Provide a positive learning atmosphere for the workers by putting them at ease, evaluating what they already know, and reiterating the importance of job safety. Treat the workers as peers.  
  2. Presentation: List and demonstrate individually each step, stressing key points, while the workers observe. Provide an opportunity for the workers to interact by asking questions. 
  3. Performance: Give the workers the opportunity to complete the steps of the process while they explain the key points. If workers cannot explain the key points, they have not internalized the instructions and explanations. They do not thoroughly understand the job and are likely to perform it incorrectly or unsafely. Repeat this step until the workers successfully explain and complete the task. 
  4. Follow-up: Monitor the workers’ performances as they complete the steps, and correct their actions before they become habits. Provide workers a means for follow-up by designating a contact person for assistance, and encourage them to ask questions as needed after completing the training.

Click the image below to view the JIT method in action.



Benefits of the JIT Method

A main advantage of the JIT method is that training is practical and realistic because work tasks are demonstrated in real-life settings that encourage personalized, hands-on learning. By using personalized training, you will be able to motivate your workers more easily and focus on areas of improvement or need specific to your farm or ranch. Be sure to evaluate the training session to determine whether the workers clearly understood the content and whether you should address additional areas in the future.


For information related to JIT, click here to read an article about job safety analysis.


Use the following format to cite this article:

Job instruction training. (2014) Farm and Ranch eXtension in Safety and Health (FReSH) Community of Practice. Retrieved from



Kelly, M. (2002) Job instruction training: A checklist. Retrieved from


Reviewers, Contributors, and Summarized by:
Linda M. Fetzer, Pennsylvania State University–
Willard Downs, University of Missouri–
Dennis J. Murphy, Pennsylvania State University – (Has since retired)
Aaron M. Yoder, University of Nebraska Medical Center–